The Pulitzer Prize in letters was established in 1917 as specified by the will of newspaper barron Joseph Pulitzer (1847-1911). He endowed the Columbia University School of Journalism with six annual literary prizes in the areas of Fiction, Poetry, Drama, general Non-Fiction, Biography and History. The prizes are awarded by an advisory board of Columbia University upon the recomendation of a jury chosen by the American Academy if Arts and Letters and the National Institute of Arts & Letters. The prize recipients are designated in April for work produced in the prior calendar year. Generally the prize is awarded to original works by American authors, pertaining to American life.